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The Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect [l] shows how an electron can be influenced by the presence of a vector potential in the absence of an extemal E or B field. The Aharonov–Bohm effect, sometimes called the Ehrenberg–Siday–Aharonov–Bohm effect, is a quantum mechanical phenomenon in which an electrically charged particle is affected by an electromagnetic potential (V, A), despite being confined to a region in which both the magnetic field B and electric field E are zero.‎Significance · ‎Magnetic solenoid effect · ‎Electric effect · ‎Aharonov–Bohm nano rings. In this seminar I present Aharonov-Bohm effect, a quantum phenomenon in which a particle is effected by electomagnetic fields even when traveling through a region of space in which both electric and magnetic field are zero.


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So something which is gauge invariant.

Next, if you look at one position only effect aharonov bohm the screen say you should notice nothing: You need to look at different positions to record a change of the intensity. Since most of the time you see the full screen when you perform the expriment, the remark above is scarcely made.

For the Aharonov-Bohm effect you record a current, not effect aharonov bohm gauge potential.

From this current you infer that something gets strange when the magnetic field is effect aharonov bohm. Obviously the interference pattern depends on the magnetic flux inside the loop.

So for one flux value, you get effect aharonov bohm path, and no interference. Since the current is by construction gauge invariant, everyone is happy. Of course the topology matters, since it is a magnetic effect. There exist more recent Aharonov-Bohm-like effects, where it is the topology of the Hilbert space itself which matters, not the topology in space.

Aharonov–Bohm effect - Wikipedia

effect aharonov bohm Berry phase on Wikipedia. Sorry, the subject is now so effect aharonov bohm that I prefer not to enter into details. As for the interpretation of the AB effect, it is once again a matter of convenience: Yet, a strange fact: In Feynman's path-integral view of dynamicsthe potential field directly changes the phase of an electron wave function, and it is these changes in phase that lead to measurable quantities.


By Stokes' theoremthe magnitude of the Aharonov—Bohm effect can be calculated using the electromagnetic fields alone, or using the four-potential alone. But when using just the electromagnetic fields, the effect depends on the field values in a region from which the test particle is excluded.

In contrast, effect aharonov bohm using just the electromagnetic four-potential, the effect only depends on the potential in the region where effect aharonov bohm test particle is allowed.

Aharonov–Bohm effect

Therefore, one must either abandon the principle of localitywhich most physicists are reluctant to do, or accept that the electromagnetic four-potential offers a more complete description of electromagnetism than the electric and magnetic fields can. On the other hand, the AB effect is crucially quantum mechanical; quantum mechanics is well-known to feature non-local effects albeit still disallowing superluminal communicationand Vaidman has argued effect aharonov bohm this is just a non-local quantum effect in a effect aharonov bohm form.

This is interesting because, while you can calculate the electromagnetic field from the four-potential, due to gauge freedom the reverse is not true.