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This section of notes gives an overview mainly of adult renal histology, see also Renal System Development notes. A key structure of the kidney. Marcello Malpighi - discovered renal corpuscles. Father of microscopic anatomy and histology. Discovered by Sir William Bowman. The anatomy, histology and development of the kidney. * Kidney is one of the 2 primary retroperitoneal organs, and is not part of the primary gut.


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Kidney development occurs within the intermediate mesoderm interacting with endoderm. In humans, this very rudimentary kidney forms very early at histology of kidney level of the neck. It is rapidly replaced by the mesonephros, intermediate stage kidney, differentiating in mesoderm beneath.

Histology of Kidney

V - S - C - M transitional epithelium - urothelium Histological term to describe the epithelium lining the ureters and urinary bladder. They develop from the ureteric bud and are lined by a histology of kidney epithelium with an outer muscular wall. In humans, the urethral length differs between the sexes male longer, female shorter.

The plasma membranes of adjacent proximal tubule cells are extensively interdigitated. This increases the basal membrane surface area available for pumping molecules out the basal end of each cell.

As a consequence of such interdigitated cell membranes, histology of kidney between adjacent proximal tubule cells are inconspicuous i.

Renal System

Loop of Henle The loop of Henle is a remarkable feature of histology of kidney renal tubule, associated with the remarkable function of the renal medulla in water conservation.

Basically, histology of kidney loop helps to establish a hypertonic saline environment in the medullawhich in turn allows subsequent recovery of water from collecting ducts and associated concentration of urine within the collecting ducts.


For further explanation of this function, see physiology resources, such as counter-current exchange. The loop of Henle consists of a descending limb, having an initial short thick segment followed by a long thin segment, and an histology of kidney limb, having a thin segment followed by a thick segment.

The descending thick segment is histology of kidney by simple cuboidal epithelium that is structurally similar to the proximal convoluted tubule.


This segment is essentially a continuation of the proximal tubule sometimes called pars recta in contrast to pars convoluta. The descending thin segment is lined by simple squamous epithelium. The ascending histology of kidney segment is also lined by simple squamous epithelium.

The ascending thick segment is lined by simple cuboidal epithelium that is structurally similar to the distal convoluted tubule as for the proximal tubule, this segment is sometimes called pars recta of the distal tubule in contrast to pars convoluta.

Distal convoluted tubule The distal convoluted tubule continues histology of kidney the cortex from the ascending limb of the loop of Henle.

Fxn — prod and excrete urine, filter waste from blood, and maintain electrolyte balance, and regulate BP by producing vasoactive substances.

Dictionary - Normal: Kidney - The Human Protein Atlas

Kidney has 3 coverings: Renal fascia — that covers both kidneys like a huge tent like structures, separates histology of kidney retroperitoneal cavity into 3 compartments. Outside the renal fascia is the pararenal fat.

The kidney has a granular cortex outer region.


It has this appearance because it is full of ovoid filtration units. The medulla lies near the concave side of the kidney.

Renal System | histology

The apex of a pyramid is known as the papilla. The papilla meets the calyx, a branch of the renal pelvis. Histology of kidney basal portion of the pyramidal structures elongate and expand, as they grow towards the cortex.